Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

If you been infected with an STD, it is best to get it treated as quickly as possible. You can get tested by us at CheckPoint Skåne.

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Get tested

If you think that you have been infected with an STD, get tested.
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Read about STDs

We have gathered information about common STDs below.
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Prevent STDs

Reduce the risk of infecting or being infected by someone with an STD by having safer sex.
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Advice

It is simplest and often quickest to come to our drop-in clinic on Tuesday between 17-19, except public holidays. You don't need to book an appointment.

Gonorrhea

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Gonorrhea is caused by gonococcus, which is a bacteria. Recently the disease has become more common around the world. A significant increase in cases of gonorrhea has also been observed in Sweden in recent years. The majority of gonorrhea cases reported in Sweden were also infected in Sweden.

Infection routes

Gonococus is a bacteria that can infect the vagina, urethra, throat and rectum. Because gonococcus is a bacteria, it infects easily. It does not need to come into contact with sperm or vaginal secretions for infection. The bacteria is most infectious in unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse, but can also be transmitted by hand, mouth and sex toys.

Incubation time

The time from when one is infected to the disease breaking out is short and symptoms appear within 3 to 7 days.

Symptoms

Discharges form the urethra, vagina and/or rectum and stinging sensation when urinating. Most people with gonorrhea bacteria in the rectum or throat do not get any symptoms but are still infectious.

Test samples

When testing, it is important that test samples are taken from all the areas where the gonorrhea bacteria can be found; from urine and/or vagina, rectum and throat. Sometimes only one of the sites is infected with gonorrhea.

Treatment

It is treated with antibiotics, usually in the form of an injection and sometimes in combination with tablets. Incorrect treatment of gonorrhea can lead to the bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics and thereby harder to treat, which is a growing problem around the world. After completed treatment, test samples are taken to ensure that the infection is cured. Untreated gonorrhea can, in time, lead to fever, inflammation in the fallopian tubes, testicles and prostate and lead to sterility.

Gonorrhea is covered by the Communicable Diseases Act. This means that tests and treatment are free. In case of infection, personnel are obliged to carry out an infection trace to investigate where the infection has come from and who you may have infected before you knew about the infection.

Hepatitis B

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This disease is commonly known as Jaundice. The virus causes an inflammation in the liver.

Infection routes

The virus is transmitted through blood and other bodily fluids.

Incubation period.

Two to six months after the point of infection.

Symptoms

The disease often leads to fever, nausea, possibly vomiting and eventually yellowness in the skin and whites of the eyes. Dark port wine coloured urine and light putty coloured stools can occur. Not everyone turns yellow but most are affected by fatigue and loss of appetite.

Test samples

Diagnosis can be made by a blood test.

Treatment

There is no specific treatment, the disease often cures itself. It is possible to vaccinate oneself against hepatitis B. It is recommended that men who have sex with men are vaccinated.

Hepatitis is covered by the Communicable Diseases Act. This means that tests and treatment are free. In case of infection, personnel are obliged to carry out an infection trace to investigate where the infection has come from and who you may have infected before you knew about the infection.

Herpes

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Herpes are small blisters caused by a virus that exists in two forms and produces oral herpes and genital herpes. It is calculated that the majority of the population carry the herpes virus. A third of all those that carry the virus are completely symptom free.

Infection routes

Touching the weeping blisters such as kissing, intercourse or sexplay with fingers and mouth. Can also be infected without having any symptoms at all because the virus can even be excreted by those who are symptom free.

Symptoms

Initially an itchy area that turns into small blisters that crack and start to weep. The first outbreak after the infection is evident and can be very painful. The outbreaks then tend to be successively milder and then disappear completely.

Test samples

Test samples can be taken from the liquid filled blisters but the herpes infection is often so typical that no test samples need to be taken.

Treatment

Herpes cannot be cured but the symptoms can be significantly reduced with an anti-viral ointment that can be purchased prescription free from pharmacies. Prescription treatments are also available for more serious outbreaks.

Herpes is not covered by the Communicable Diseases Act. This means that you must pay for the treatment yourself. Neither do you need to do an infection trace.

HIV

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HIV is a viral infection for which there is not yet a cure.

Infection routes

HIV can be transmitted through sexplay where the virus via blood, sperm or vaginal secretion enters the bloodstream.

Incubation time

One to four weeks after the infection approximately half those infected fall ill with an acute (primary) HIV infection. It manifests itself in the form of an influenza like sickness, with fever and sore throat and a rash on the body.

Symptoms

HIV infection means that the immune system is reduced and the body becomes susceptible and defenceless against infections.

Test samples

An HIV test consists of a blood test. You can be tested for HIV as soon as six weeks of the sexual encounter. About half of all people infected with HIV test positive as soon as two weeks after infection.

For tests with a fast test result (quick test) 8 weeks apply. About half of all people infected with HIV test positive four weeks after infection.

Treatment

So far, it has proved impossible to eradicate HIV from the human body. In other words, one cannot be cured of an HIV infection when one takes medicinal treatment, antiretroviral drugs, against the disease. However, it reduces the HIV virus’s progress in the body and at the same time prevents the damage that can occur because of it. The chances of passing on the infection are nil, provided beneficial and efficient treatment is being administered.

HIV is covered by the Communicable Diseases Act. This means that tests and treatment are free. In case of infection, personnel are obliged to carry out an infection trace to investigate where the infection has come from and who you may have infected before you knew about the infection.

HPV

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Human papillomvirus, HPV, causes several common sexually transmitted diseases. Usually they are not noticed at all and cure themselves, but they can also cause genital warts and/or cellular changes that can lead to penis cancer, anal cancer and throat cancer. During the last 50 years there has been a sharp increase in mouth and throat cancers and the number of people testing HPV positive has dramatically increased.

HPV is highly infectious and most people are infected with one or several different types of the virus at some time in their life. HPV is transmitted by direct contact with skin and mucous membranes. The incubation time from infection until the warts are visible is from one to two months and up to many years. These days there is a vaccine against the common virus types that can cause warts and cause cancer.

Vaccination is primarily recommended for people who have not yet had sex with a partner. Women between the ages of 13-26 are offered subsidised vaccination in the school vaccination program but pressure is growing for it also to be available to men.

HPV vaccination is not just an issue for youths and young adults, as a comparison in the United Kingdom homo- and bisexual men are offered the HPV vaccination up to 45 years of age because this group is exposed to greater risk than others. Here in Sweden you must pay for your own vaccination.

Chlamydia

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Chlamydia is a common STD in Sweden. It is easy for it to become widespread because many do not display symptoms of the infection. More than half of infected men do not notice that they have caught chlamydia at all and about 70% of women with chlamydia show no symptoms. But the risk of complications and of infecting someone else are still as great.

Infection routes

Chlamydia is a bacteria and it infects easily, it does not need to come into contact with sperm or vaginal secretions for infection. The bacteria is infectious in unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse, but can also be transmitted by hand, mouth or sex toys.

Incubation time

The time from when one is infected to the disease breaking out is short and any symptoms can appear from a couple of days to a week later.

Symptoms

Discharge and/or stinging in the urethra and/or rectum. Chlamydia can also cause irritation in the throat. The majority of those infected have no symptoms.

Test samples

Men provide a urine sample and women a urine sample and a vaginal swab. Test samples can also be taken from the throat and rectum. Testing should be carried out no sooner than a week after it is suspected that infection occurred.

Treatment

Treatment is by antibiotic tablets and if the chlamydia is not treated it can lead to inflammation in the genitals and give urinary tract problems. In women, chlamydia can lead to inflammation of the fallopian tubes with a risk of infertility.

Chlamydia is covered by the Communicable Diseases Act. This means that tests and treatment are free. In case of infection, personnel are obliged to carry out an infection trace to investigate where the infection has come from and who you may have infected before you knew about the infection.

Genital warts

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Genital warts are small warts caused by a virus. They can grow on and around the genitals and around the opening for the rectum. The warts are a pinky white or skin coloured. They can have bulbous surfaces and often grow in small clusters.

Infection routes

The wart virus infects through contact with skin and mucous membranes where there are genital warts. It is infectious even if there are no visible warts.

Incubation time

From being infected until the warts become visible can take several months to several years. It is therefore often impossible to determine who one has become infected by.

Symptoms

The infection does not usually give any symptoms. Warts can cause itching and give discomfort during frottage and during vaginal or anal intercourse.

Test samples

Diagnosis is by inspection of the suspected warts by a doctor.

Treatment

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The warts heal themselves, but this can take several years, several methods are therefore used to remove the visible warts. Warts can be removed with a cream or a solution that is painted on to the warts. They can also be burnt or frozen off.

Genital warts are not covered by the Communicable Diseases Act. This means that you must pay for the treatment yourself. Neither do you need to do an infection trace.

LGV

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LGV – lymfogranuloma venereum, is an STD that is very rare in Sweden. In those few cases diagnosed in Sweden, all infections occurred abroad. Several of these have been homosexual men.

Infection routes

LGV infects through oral, anal and vaginal sex and is caused by a variant of the same bacteria that causes chlamydia infections.

Incubation time

The incubation time is often long, up to several months before swelling occurs in the lymph glands. The genital sores appear much earlier.

Symptoms

LGV normally reveals itself through sores on the genitals, the throat and the rectum. In later stages, swollen lymph glands and/or symptoms from the rectum and rectal opening by bleeding and symptoms from stomach and intestines as well a general feeling of illness, fever and joint pain appear. The infection can be symptom free, but is still infectious.

Test samples

Confirmation of the infection is by the symptoms one has and/or in conjunction with the test results showing that one has chlamydia. Test samples are taken from the sore and/or the rectum.

Treatment

Usually treated by a course of antibiotics over 3 weeks.

LGV is covered by the Communicable Diseases Act. This means that tests and treatment are free. In case of infection, personnel are obliged to carry out an infection trace to investigate where the infection has come from and who you may have infected before you knew about the infection.

Mycoplasma

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Mycoplasma in the genitals is a relatively unknown STD that has many similarities with chlamydia and infects during unprotected sex.

Infection routes

The infection is in the mucous membranes primarily in the urethra and vagina. The bacteria is infectious in unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse, but can also be transmitted by hand, mouth or sex toys.

Incubation time

The time from when one is infected to the disease breaking out and symptoms appearing is usually 10 to 14 days.

Symptoms

Symptoms are usually burning/itching in the urethra. When the infection is in the vagina it can cause painful discharge. Just as with chlamydia many people do not even notice that they have the disease, because there are often no symptoms displayed.

Test samples

Usually a urine sample and/or vaginal swab is used. Test samples can also be taken from throat and rectum. Testing should be carried out no sooner than ten days after it is suspected that infection occurred.

Treatment

The infection is treated with antibiotics. In infrequent cases this infection can also give complications in the form of inflammation of the fallopian tubes or inflammation of the epididymis.

Mycoplasma is not covered by the Communicable Diseases Act. This means that you must pay for the treatment yourself. Neither do you need to do an infection trace.

Syphilis

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Syphilis was previously a very common STD but is rare in Sweden. The number of people infected with syphilis has been growing for a number of years, and it is primarily men being infected through sex with men. The disease is common in large parts of the world.

Infection routes

The syphilis bacteria is transmitted from contact with syphilis sores and rashes.

Incubation time

The time from infection to the disease breaking out is two to four weeks.

Symptoms

Syphilis often starts with one or more hard, rough, weeping sores in the location where the bacteria entered the body. If the sore is in the vagina or rectum it can be difficult to detect. After two to four weeks the sore heals itself, but the bacteria remains in the body. After a period a rash appears on the skin. Other symptoms are fever, nausea, fatigue joint pain and loss of hair. Not everyone gets these symptoms, some don’t notice any of them. Untreated syphilis can, after several years, lead to serious damage to the brain and heart.

Test samples

Test samples for syphilis can be taken from the liquid from the sores or as a blood test several weeks after the suspected infection.

Treatment

Syphilis is treated by penicillin injections once a week for two or three weeks. Regular checks must be made after the treatment.

Syphilis is covered by the Communicable Diseases Act. This means that tests and treatment are free. In case of infection, personnel are obliged to carry out an infection trace to investigate where the infection has come from and who you may have infected before you knew about the infection.

Trichomonas

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Trichomonas is an uncommon STD in Sweden. Three quarters of men and half of women infected never get any symptoms.

Infection routes

The disease is caused by a parasite, it is in the vagina and infects during intercourse and other unprotected sexual contact.

Incubation time

The time from being infected until the disease breaking out can be as short as a couple of days but can take longer, up to several weeks.

Symptoms

The symptoms of infection are stinging and/or itching in the urethra or vaginal discharge that can be yellowy green and sometimes smell unpleasant. The majority of those infected have no symptoms.

Test samples

Diagnosis after vaginal swab in women. Men give a urine sample.

Treatment

The infection is treated with antibiotics.

Trichomonas is not covered by the Communicable Diseases Act. This means that you must pay for the treatment yourself. Neither do you need to do an infection trace.

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